In the 20th century, sculpture art has entered a new era. From the works of many sculptors, it shows the abandonment of traditional materials and natural forms, and the deepening of the mental state of modern people.
The distinctive features of these anti-traditional sculptures are color, light and transparency. The use of color is the biggest feature, and there are four types.
First, the natural color
Western traditional sculptures use delicate, white marble: Africa is carved with wood, whether it is the “Venus Goddess”, or “David” “struggling slaves”, or a large number of African woodcarving masks, showing the texture of the material. Beauty and color beauty, this natural color beauty manifested from the material texture is the most essential beauty of the material. It is mysterious and ancient, and it blends with the human nature, which makes people feel the transfer of life.
The term “modern sculpture” appeared late, but the modern consciousness as the dominant idea of modern sculpture has already had a complete system and a large number of works from Brancusi. Brancusi’s art, trying to express the essence of the material, his bronze and marble works, reached a rare level of perfection in history. His work “Fish” uses a grained marble to form a simple, nearly elliptical shape, so that the color of the texture can fully play its role to enrich the overall effect, making people feel the magic of marine life and the sea world. In addition, his “Aviator of the Air”, “Miss Pogani” and “Miracle” are all masterpieces that make full use of natural colors.
There are also many sculptors who have created a large number of excellent works in the colors of various metals. Romania’s Kemini is one of the most individual sculptors. He uses metal scraps of various colors, such as copper, iron, zinc, aluminum, etc., to cut these scraps into different shapes, with small squares and cylinders. Shapes or strips, etc., and then welded them together to create some magical imaginary relief forms.
The color effect is produced by the choice of materials and the variable processing with a strong flame of the welding torch, which is particularly important in terms of the final effect. Many sculptors in Europe and the United States have used the natural color of materials to create. Roth Zach uses the natural colors of copper bronze and iron to represent the strange robots that emerge from the walls, reminiscent of the magical deformation process. Pefsner has also created a large number of handed down works using a combination of natural colors such as brass, bronze, oxidized brass and glass.
Kasela’s “The Beautiful Narcissus” is a sculpture made up of black Belgian marble and other colors of stone. Gabor’s creation of blackened aluminum, gold thread and bronze can be said that almost every sculptor has pursued the natural color while choosing the sculpture material. The natural color of the material plays an important role in modern sculpture. It is an important feature of modern sculpture.
Second, artificial color
In the pursuit of the color effect of sculpture, modern sculptors directly use the paint of various colors on the sculpture. The use of paint on the sculpture changes the nature of the sculpture material itself, making the sculpture material retreat into a non-attribute filling entity. The concept of materials becomes vague and subordinate, and thus the personality of the styling is more distinct. In addition, the soft, hard light and heavy feeling of the sculpture can be arbitrarily controlled by the sculptor, and the sculpture works have the possibility of satisfying the modern human psychology and the environment. This re-creation of materials with paint adds a mystery to the sculpture, while also emphasizing the power of mankind and the ability of humans to conquer nature.
In the 1930s and 1940s, Calder invented the “moving sculpture” sculpture made of metal or wire of various colors. Under the action of inertia, each piece of metal is flashing and changing positions. It seems like a petal, flying in the wind, flying in the sky, making people feel a relaxed and happy feeling. The modeling and activity characteristics of these sculptures are of course the cause of the pleasant effects, but the role of color is also an incalculable factor. He is good at using strong red, yellow, blue and other colors, applying different colors on both sides of the same piece of metal, so that each piece of metal on the whole sculpture rotates with the inertia, and changes the composition. And color, giving people a long thought and imagination
Anthony Caro once said: I would rather make a sculpture with something that I can’t name. Therefore, he painted most of the work steel steel, wire, cloth and other works into a single unified color and deliberately chose the fuzzy color, so that people can not determine the weight of the work. In Carlo’s hand, the hard material feels surprisingly soft.
Under the influence of color, he completed the mission of changing the visual effect of materials. David Smith always believed in the use of color, and regarded color as an integral part of sculpture. He created a series of different compositions with large pieces of steel, and painted these compositions in different shades of color and painted white lines. Due to the difference in color and lines, the cubes of the basic form are similar, and their artistic effects are completely different. So that the composition of each cube has a life. Philip King often uses a variety of bright colors on glass fiber reinforced plastics and plastics to emphasize the movement of the shape, so that the objects that are still stationary have a sense of activity. This is the same point of the young European sculptors in the middle of this century, and the meaning is very Interested in plastic is artificial, can make it have any properties, it can be dyed into any color, it is not the same as the wood and stone that emphasizes the “material authenticity” era, without the I-beam, steel sheet that Industrial flavor. It means a culture, a culture in which everything is free to use, a culture that is only associated with exhibitions and not with eternal things.
Some modern sculptors in Europe and the United States use some of the rich images of Marini. On the textured surface of the head, the original look is used, and the pigment is filled in the hole to increase the color and The change in texture, in his series of geometric blocks, color is often the most prominent feature: Butler created a group of bronze women when the creation entered a new stage, and accurately painted color, it looks exactly like The skin and hair of the human body: Chamberlain uses some car body waste with a strong enamel colored surface to create an abstract assembly that is considered to be beautiful; Kong Sagra in order to break the ancient concept of using the sculpture as a totem, the plate Or the structure of the metal is scarred, burned, welded, and spliced to create a two-dimensional landscape of sculpture, and then painted with strong red, white and other colors, the artist thinks these colors are for these shapes. It is the most natural.
The color concept of modern sculpture was obviously influenced by the exploration of sculptures by American color painters at the time, mainly by painters Newman and Kelly. The facts show that this exploration is successful. The role of color in sculpture is not at all reduced in the role of painting. It has been established as an integral part of sculpture in the field of sculpture, and has found its proper place in sculpture.
Third, the use of colored lights
The modern sculpture color and the way of using color are rich and colorful. In addition to the natural color of the material and the color of the artificial paint, there are also sculptural works created by using various colors of lanterns. These works prevailed in the 1960s, and due to lighting restrictions, most of these works were created indoors or indoors. His representative figures are Kriza, Lipol, and Nikola Schaefer of Germany.
Kriza is good at treating people’s most common things in life as sculptures. In capitalist societies with highly developed commodity economies, neon signs abound, so Kriza likes to use neon as a theme. He used a neon tube of red, brown, orange, green, blue and other colors to form an arrangement like the “8” shape. There are six neon tubes. Each tube is painted with two colors. The right side is red, brown red, and orange. The left side is green and blue. The color contrast is strong and the brilliance is dazzling. This kind of work is mainly composed of light and atmosphere, coupled with the timing of the disconnector, creating a neon effect, winning with novelty, exquisiteness and ingenuity.
In the 1960s, there was a kind of light art in Europe. The art of light was the use of electric light, mainly using various neon lights to create the illusion effect. The “timer” of the music was given to people by the action of neon lights.
The fascinating color enjoys the sculpture. It is a movable sculpture composed of a number of round aluminum plates of different sizes mounted on four aluminum frames and horizontal bars. The order of the circular aluminum plates is ever-changing. Under the action of the motor, The bright circular aluminum plates are constantly rotating, reflecting each other under the influence of colorful light, producing different artistic effects. It is difficult for the audience to see how many circular aluminum plates that are reflective like mirrors are rotating, and the visual impression they create is endless. The audience looked dizzy. This combination of light art and activity art was developed on the basis of the activity sculpture created by American sculptor Calder in the 1930s.
Another American sculptor Lipold created in the 1960s.
The series of impressive architectural sculpture structures. These structures combine extremely polished gold wires and metal plaques in a very complex way, especially in the case of artificial lighting, whose brilliant surface flashes with rainbow-like illumination.
Fourth, the use of reflective objects to obtain the rich colors of the natural environment
This is another type of sculpture that uses color in modern sculptures and the former three types. The reflective objects are mostly polished metal and glass. The polishing of metal is not a traditional one. It expresses the beauty of the metal material and treats it as a mirror-like reflector to illuminate the natural color of the opposite environment.
There is a stainless steel sculpture of “Cosmos Space” in the Tenno-cho Natural Park in Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan. It is a raised prism on both sides. The front is polished like a mirror, and the blue sky, white clouds and jungle are opposite. The interpenetrating fusion, due to the evolution of the cloud, changes the picture with an abstract picture, the color is extremely rich and dazzling. The Swiss sculptor Max Bill has been searching for infinite changes in color throughout his creative career. He has made the shiny and thin copper plates into various shapes, and then under the influence of light, the surrounding environment is competing for the works. In the middle, the static sculpture creates a wonderful movement.
In short, the color of modern sculpture makes the sculpture art overflow with a new spirit, with the imagination of the past and the re-examination of the imagination. This kind of imagination is the unity of the contradiction with the development of human beings. The infinite tension of modern sculpture.
Modern sculpture requires the cooperation of experienced and creative professional sculpture factories to truly beautify our environment and create quality sculptures.